“U.S. nonproliferation policy faces major challenges in South Asia. Both India and Pakistan have flight-tested missiles and combat aircraft with unarmed nuclear assemblies. In August 1999 an officially constituted advisory panel to the Indian National Security Council released a draft nuclear doctrine envisaging a nuclear triad in which nuclear weapons would be delivered by aircraft, submarines, and mobile land-based ballistic missiles. Should India opt for nuclear weapons deployment, the likelihood of a retaliatory Pakistani deployment would be great, given Pakistan’s India-centric and reactive nuclear policy.”