“Motivated by a heightened sensitivity to nuclear security after the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 and the revelations in February 2004 of the nuclear black market run by Pakistani scientist A.Q. Khan, the UNSC enacted in Resolution 1540 what is perhaps the most far-reaching multilateral policy re-orientation against nuclear proliferation since the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) entered into force 35 years ago.”