What can we learn from situations where sanctions were imposed and consequences for citizens were harsh? How can policymakers increase the effectiveness of sanctions while creating stronger safeguards to prevent negative humanitarian impacts?

To address these concerns, The Sanctions and Security Research Project of the Fourth Freedom Forum and the Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies, part of the University of Notre Dame’s Keough School of Global Affairs, have commissioned studies of the humanitarian impact of sanctions on Iran and Venezuela. They have also joined with The Carter Center’s project that documents the humanitarian impact of sanctions in Syria.

Conversations about these studies were presented on a zoom webinar on 6 December, featuring the following individuals in order of their appearance:

Maura Policelli, Executive Director, Keough School Washington Office
Alistair Millar, President, Fourth Freedom Forum
U.S. Representative Jim McGovern (D-Massachusetts)
George A. Lopez, Rev. Theodore M. Hesburgh, C.S.C., Professor Emeritus of Peace Studies
Francisco Rodríguez, 2021-22 International Affairs Fellow in International Economics, Council on Foreign Relations; Director, Oil for Venezuela
Rana Shabb, Associate Director for the Middle East, Conflict Resolution Program, The Carter Center
Esfandyar Batmanhelidj, Founder and CEO, Bourse & Bazaar Foundation
Jason Barlett, Research Assistant, Center for a New American Security
Trita Parsi, Executive Vice President, Quincy Institute for Responsible Statecraft