Unknown Knowns: How the Bush Administration Traded Failure for Success in Iraq

By David Cortright, George A. Lopez, and Alistair Millar

Policy brief — July 2022

This study by the Fourth Freedom Forum’s New Paradigm Project examines the alternative security approaches that were available at the time of the U.S. invasion of Iraq in 2002, and examines alternatives to document that the war was unnecessary and to highlight the policy advantages of multilateral nonmilitary security strategies.